Coal & Climate Change 2017

Coal and Climate Change 2017  Report: Turkey did not ratify Paris Agreement due to dependency on imported fossil fuels!

for the report, click here.

The Report reveals that Turkey, which declared that it will not ratify Paris Agreement, has become fully dependent on all of the three imported fuels after 2010. The report, which also examines the climatic events, shows that 2016 has been the fourth hottest year measured in Turkey and the second year in terms of climatic disasters.

Coal import is increasing in spite of natural gas and petroleum!

The report, which shows that the efforts of Turkey for popularizing natural gas since 1990 could stop neither coal nor petroleum, makes the observation that those three fuels have been racing in terms of increase since 2010. It is found out that energy consumption in Turkey increased by 75,9 million toe between 1990-2015 and that 70,2 million toe of this increase was caused by natural gas, petroleum and coal.

Wind YEKA competition shows how expensive coal is

Algedik, who stated that they reached another important finding besides imported coal dependency in the past years, in the report that is published this year, indicated that coal is more expensive than wind in spite of the provided incentives, and would be more expensive than all other sources without the incentives. The latest tenders held with the condition of local production of equipment resulted in prices of 6.99 cents for solar energy and 3.49 cent for wind, while Çayırhan B tender, which had imported machinery and equipment, was closed with a price of 6,04 cents.

Subvention of 2530 MW Imported Coal Plant

The report, which shows that subventions are provided for coal plants of 6.3 billion TL in 2016, reveals that plants with an installed power of 2530 MW, which will burn imported coal, have obtained various subventions. The author of the report, climate and energy expert, Önder Algedik, said: “We found out that a subvention of 2 billion TL has been directly or indirectly transferred to coal projects in 2016. The cost of this for the consumer is much bigger”. Algedik indicated that the problems would be completely solved by reserving this subvention for energy efficiency and climate-friendly energy, and a saving would be obtained from the foreign currency paid for coal and machine import and from the subventions for the investments.

Paris Agreement is not ratified for more energy import!

The greenhouse gases emitted by Turkey to the atmosphere increased from 214 million tons in 1990 to 475.1 million tons in 2015. 205,7 million tons of 261,1 million tons increase that occurred in 25 years has been energy sector – sourced. Algedik indicated that those policies are the findings showing that Turkey did not ratify Paris agreement in order to sustain coal, petroleum and natural gas import.

Primary energy usage of Turkey

9 facts from the report:

  1. 2016 has been the fourth hottest year measured in Turkey and the second year in terms of extreme climatic events occurred most.
  2. Turkey increased greenhouse gas emissions by 262 million tons in 25 years between 1990-2015 and now wants to increase them by an additional 454 million tons until 2030 in accordance with INDC.
  3. Due to increasing fossil fuel dependency, the share of non-fossil energy decreased from 18% in 1990 to 12% in 2015.
  4. While Turkey had no imported coal plants until 2000, it reached an installed power of 7 GW today. With 62 plants that Turkey has today, imported plants are producing more electricity in spite of their installed power of 16,7 GW.
  5. Turkey had 20,2 GW of imported coal power project in the pipeline despite 5 GW of local coal power plant project. When those plants are completed, the coal plant emissions of Turkey will be in excess of all emissions in 1990.
  6. In spite of the bids submitted for wind and solar energy tenders and relatively cheap prices, Turkey offered 6,04 cents/kwh for Çayırhan B coal power plant project with 15 years of purchase guarantee.
  7. 2 billion TL incentives have been provided for coal only in 2016,. Despite “local coal” discourse, 2530 MW of imported coal projects benefited from the incentives.
  8. Turkish Banks supported fossil fuel investments. 7 Turkish banks provided loans for a total of 9 GW coal plants.
  9. Between 1990-1999, an average of 67 extreme climatic events occurred in Turkey. With factors such as imported fossil fuels and urbanizations, this has increased to 752 events in 2016. Turkey’s high carbon economy will give rise to more irreparable consequences.


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Coal & Climate Change 2016

Increasing Dependency on Energy Imports

Climate and Energy Expert Önder Algedik recently released new report: Coal and Climate Change 2016. According to report, Turkey’s high carbon policy has been increasing fossil fuel dependency as well as energy import dependency despite political discourse.

For the report, click here.

Coal import: six times of 90s!

The report analyses energy policies, investments and coal power plants. While Turkey is almost doubling its total coal consumption, coal import has reached a level in 2014 that is 6 times the level in 1990. Although Turkish government has been pushing local energy sources such as lignite, 41,5 million ton of 42,5 million ton coal consumption increase came from coal power plant mostly import coal. Coal import was 5.5 million tons in 1990 and increased approximately 6 times and reached 30,2 million tons in 2014.

Önder Algedik, author of the report, explains such dependency “ Import coal in power plant is a new issue emerging from 2002. 9 GW of new power plant capacity has commissioned since that time and almost 6 GW them are burning imported coal. While Turkey has been pronouncing lignite, we are seeing that more coal has been imported.”. The report clearly delivers Turkey’s high carbon market motivation by pushing local as well as import coal consumption.


Power and fuel projection of coal thermal plants of Turkey.

De-carbonization of Turkish economy; almost impossible

Turkey signed Paris Agreement on April 22nd with 175 countries and submitted INDC on October 2015. According to delivered INDC, Turkey’s emission in 2030 in 929 million ton which means 461 million ton more greenhouse gas compared to 2014 level. This increase is more than 261 million ton increase which is total increase between 1990 and 2014. Algedik says “ one of sixth of the total emission is coming from coal power plant, but candidate coal power projects would allocate half of total increase according to findings and our analysis. This shows that INDC of Turkey is prioritizing more fossil fuel especially natural gas and coal.”

Findings of the report:

  • The most critical player in Turkey’s greenhouse gas emissions is coal and natural gas. 167,2 million tons of the 259,8 million tons of emission increase between 1990-2014 is caused by the carbon dioxide produced as the result of burning coal & natural gas.
  • The “energy need”, which is shown as the reason of those increases, in fact has the purpose of only increasing the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Therefore, the share of non-fossil fuel energy resources, which was 18,6% in 1990, decreased below 9,9% in 2014.
  • The determinative of the increase in the coal consumption is the thermal plants, which are responsible for 41,5 million tons of the 42,5 million tons increase between 1990-2014.
  • Thermal plants are being developed in double ways with domestic coal plants on one hand and imported coal plants on the other hand. While Turkey is almost doubling its total coal consumption, coal import has reached a level in 2014 that is 6 times the level in 1990.
  • Today, 59 plants are in operation in accordance with EMRA lists, and they have an installed power of 16 GW. Approximately 6 GW of the installed power consists of imported coal plants and is responsible for the half of the missions produced by electricity production and coal plants.
  • The thermal plants, which burn only coal emitted 22 million tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in 1990, and this amount has reached 76 million tons in 2014. This amount will increase further with the units added after 2014.
  • 37 plants, which are licensed but none of their units are in operation, which obtained preliminary license, or whose preliminary license application is under assessment, are included as candidates in EMRA lists. 14 of those candidate plants will burn lignite and asphaltite and the remaining 23 plants will import coal. When 2 projects, which have royalty contracts, are added to those plants, the power of candidate plants reaches 29,4 GW.
  • Turkey will add an installed power of 4 GW to burn its own coal and an installed power of 25 GW to burn the world’s coal as the result of its high-carbon policies.
  • Turkey’s coal plant development program is not limited only with the EMRA licensing processes. With the coal exploration works that it restarted in 2005, a new reserve of 7,2 billion tons was added. The existing and the newly found reserves are being developed by the state.
  • With the royalty model, 9 plants having a total power of 3GW was gained, two of them has not started the licensing process, yet. Furthermore, 5 areas are being developed by the state.
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New report; Climate Change With Royalty Model

Turkey promoted royalty contract after 2005. After Soma mine disaster, royalty contract in coal production took public attention. Royalty contract in electricity production in not well-known model.

New report, Climate Change With Royalty Model analyses background of royalty contract in electricity production. The report is prepared by Önder Algedik, energy and climate expert.

Findings of the report rises serious concerns about Turkish high carbon economy policies;

  • Turkey ratified UNFCCC in 2004. After that, Turkey launched coal exploration activities in 2005. Since than, 7,2 billion tons of new lignite reserve explored.
  • Royalty contract is an important tool in increasing coal production. Royalty model in electric production is another tool that increases coal consumption. As of today, Turkey has 9 coal power plant contract with royalty model.
  • Burning 887 million tons of reserve of these 9 power plants means 780 million tons of CO2 which is equal to 5 years of greenhouse gas emissions emitted by Ethiopia.
  • Turkey privatized 4,6 GW of coal power plant recently. With royalty model, private sector reached 7,6 GW power plant installed capacity. Even this figure shows how Turkey is gaining private sector investment to the high carbon economy.
  • Although Turkey has been defending historical responsibilities, further affords has been developed in order to burn the coal in the soil. Combustion of recently found 7.2 billion tons of reserve would cause 8 billion tons of carbon dioxide that is equal to 50 times of annual emissions emitted by Ethiopia.


Writer of the report; Önder Algedik summarizes that “ Financing Coal report described Turkey’s high carbon economy model and how Turkey is pushing coal in energy policies. Our recent report TGNA’s Role in Climate Change analyzed Turkish Parliament role in terms of legislation and parliamentary scrutiny. As Turkey signed Paris Agreement on April 22, This new report shows widening gap between scientific facts and policies as well as increasing role of private sector in coal power plant.”

For the the report click here,


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Report: TGNA’S Role in Climate Change Policy – Summary for Policymakers

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey-TGNA has an important role in terms of legislation and parliamentary scrutiny with regard to responsibilities that Turkey will shoulder in the new global climate regime initiated by the Paris Agreement adopted by all members of the United Nations (UN) in December 2015. Global Balance Association, The Consumer and Climate Protection Association (TuvikDer) and the Legislation Association (YasaDer) has released a new report titled ” TGNA’S Role in Climate Change Policy”.

No comprehensive research has yet been done about the extent to which related laws, which have been passed by the TGNA and are currently in force, have contributed or obstructed the struggle on the climate change. This Project, the first of its kind in Turkey, will bridge that gap. One of the deliverables of the project is to determine the awareness of parliamentarians on putting the climate change on their political agenda. The results will also signify how parliamentarians defend human rights and the environment in connection with the fight on climate change.TGNA role on CC

The report released in February 29th to the public with the participation of 17 MP’s from four parties.

For all the reports and meeting notes (in Turkish) on Legislation Association page,  click here.

For the summary report (in English), click here

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Afşin-Elbistan Coal Power Plants Report: Changing climate rather than producing electricity!

Climate and Energy Consultant and founder of Önder Algedik has published a new report on Afşin- Elbistan coal reserve and power plants. The report analyses role of Afşin-Elbistan reserve and explains role in changing climate rather than producing electricity.

AEL CoalPowerPlant

For the report, click here.

In order to strengthen high carbon policy, Turkey has been looking for development of new project on government owned Afşin-Elbistan C, D and E sites while working on permission to other mine areas of private sector for power plant investments. The report identifies problems of high carbon policies in the light of Afşin-Elbistan lignite reserve;

  • In 2005, the exploration works have been re-started as a sign of the acceleration in the return of Turkey to coal use.
  • As a consequence of exploration work, lignite reserve increased to 4,8 billion tons in the area. In other words, Afşin-Elbistan basin has one third of the coal reserves of Turkey.
  • Till 2015, Plant A and Plant B burned 405 million tons of coal in order to produce 173,3 million MWh electricity by emitting 200 million tons of carbon dioxide.
  • Taking into consideration that the annual operation period of thermal plants is about 8000 hours, it is seen that the average operational period of 8 units of 2 plants is very low and has been 2422 hours in 2012.

The report also shows difficulty of keeping the global temperature raise under 20C in case of burning remaining coal reserve. Although scientific reports shows that 80% of worlds known reserve should stay in the ground, the report demonstrates that burning remaining reserve of Afşin-Elbistan area would cause emitting 2,4 billion tons of carbon dioxide.

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Financing Coal

Turkey’s coal based energy policies threatens G20 and UNFCCC discussions

Climate and Energy Consultant and founder of; Önder Algedik has published a new report called Financing Coal: High Carbon Arithmetic of Turkey in the year of G20 Presidency of Turkey and UNFCCC Paris talks. The report explores Turkish coal sector including finance mechanisms that supports high carbon dynamics of Turkish energy sector. According to report, with current energy policies, Turkey will emit more greenhouse gas from electricity sector after completing coal power plants on the pipeline.

Writer of the report; Onder Algedik summarizes that “Although we are globally discussing abandoning coal in the eve of UNFCCC Paris and Turkey included fossil fuel subsidies and climate financing topics in G20 agenda, Turkey continues developing privileges for coal usage and planning to release more GHG emissions by usage of more domestic and global coal reserves”


Fossil Fuel usage increasing faster than energy demand;

In terms of fossil fuels, report shows that, fossil fuel usage is accelerating faster than energy demand in Turkey:

  • Fossil fuel usage increased 152%, despite %128 total primary energy increase between 1990-2012.
  • Turkey’s high carbon policies increased share of fossil fuel from %81.5 in 1990 to %89.9 in 2012.

 Usage of coal in electricity sector is increasing and boosting GHC emissions of Turkey;

While the greenhouse gas emissions of Turkey has increased 133.4% between 1990-2012, the emission produced by the combustion of coal at thermal power plants has increased 219%. Moreover; If Turkey commissions the plants included in the portfolio; the coal-sourced carbon dioxide emission, which was 21,5 million tons in 1990, 68,7 million tons in 2012, is expected to reach 200 million tons (which is almost half of Turkey’s 2012 GHG emissions).

Moreover, Turkey provides more incentives for coal investments and developing new coal finance mechanisms. As a result; crediting coal investments are increasing and boosting GHC emissions of the country. Report concludes that up to now; national banks provided 4,3 Billon dollar credit to 4.7 GW of coal power plants by securing investment and supporting policies. These credits will be increased by realization of 20 GW of coal power plant.

Carbon Leakage through Coal!

Report shows that Turkey’s energy policies based on coal leads the extraction of more domestic and some global coal reserves.

  • Between 1990 and 2012, Turkey’s domestic coal usage doubled while coal import increased 5 times.
  • If the current coal plans are realized, Every 3 MW of 4 MW new capacities will use exported coal in Turkey.

Current data shows that; alongside the extraction of national coal reserves, Turkey is becoming an address of carbon leakage day by day through imported coal. Coal import from South Africa, Australia, USA, China and Canada, and mainly Russia has been increased drastically and will increase with current coal based energy policies.

Full version of the report can be downloaded through this link.

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Climate Negotiations Without Turkey?

“We have to ask ourselves ‘Why is Turkey becoming more carbon intensive while the technology provides more service with less energy?’ Turkey’s dismal climate scoreboard is best understood by the Turkish economy’s heavy dependence on industries with high carbon emissions.”

Turkish Policy Quarterly, Summer 2014


Effectively tackling climate change requires strong, wide-spread agreement and high-level policy measures on a global scale. In contrast to the former high carbon economy paradigm, the new era is defined by the de-carbonization of economic activities. In this context, however, Turkey still functions within the old paradigm. Although Turkey is now experiencing extreme climate events more than ever, it has continued to promote carbon-intense growth policies. Compounding the detrimental effects of these national policies, Turkey is also not a visible player in international climate negations. Turkey’s contribution to the new international agreement scheduled to be adopted in Paris in 2015 is critical.

to read full article, click here; Climate Negotiations Without Turkey?

tpq 50 kpak

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Monitoring report on Turkey’s Climate Change Action Plan released.

In 2011, Turkey released Climate Change Action Plan, CCAP. Climate Change Action Plan is a unique plan that Turkey has. The plan does not have any greenhouse gas reduction or limitation target. CCAP covers actions in energy, buildings, industry, transportation, waste, agriculture, land use, forestry and adaptation between the year 2011 and 2023.

Climate Change Action Plan Assessment Report monitors actions and targets since release of the CCAP. Assessment Report connects relations between actions/targets and climate change policies as well as provides data about progress. Main findings of the report would be summarized as below:

  • The CCAP is not transparent and open to public in terms of actions and progress and proceeds closed to participation.
  • A portion of the actions consist of work that already had to be realized as a result of legislation or practices prior to the CCAP.
  • Some of the actions have already been completed before the CCAP.
  • Actions pertaining to the use of fossil fuels that are dangerous in terms of climate change exist in the CCAP while some actions on the other hand will cause the delay of main actions.
  • Whatever the qualities of greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions; a relation between the problem area and solutions have not been established.
  • There are 86 actions that are envisaged to be completed until 2013 in terms of climate change. Whereas, according to report, some of actions are not completed, delayed or still in progress.

CCAP coverpage

The report is written by Önder Algedik on behalf of Tüvik-Der (Association of the Protection of Consumer and Climate) and supported by Heinrich Böll Stiftung Turkey Representation.

Please click here to see full report in English.

Please click here to see full report in Turkish.

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